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Criminal Law between war and peace

XVth International Congress of Social Defense

Justice and cooperation in criminal matters in international military interventions

Toledo, Spain September, 2007
In cooperation with
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
with the patronage of
Spanish Ministry of Defence

0. Contenidos

  1. Final report and conclusions
  2. Programme
    1. Thursday, 20 September
    2. Friday, 21 September
    3. Saturday, 22 September
  3. Scientific Committee, Rapporteurs and Organization committee

A. Presentation

The International Society of Social Defence was founded in the aftermath of the Second World War. Its aim was to provide scientific answers –at the international level– to problems linked to criminality and its prevention by means of legal and social analysis and a humane criminal policy. Through the subject it has chosen for its XVth international Congress, the Society is once again bringing into the limelight of the international scene a very important and hitherto little discussed issue. So, the Congress has dealt with specific subjects which can be summed up as follows:

1. The modernisation of military criminal justice, giving particular emphasis to the input of the European and Inter-American Courts of Human Rights.
2. The criminal law framework applicable to military interventions abroad, especially as regards the basis and consequences, from a criminal law standpoint, of Status of Forces Agreements (SOFA) and Rules of Engagement (ROE), as well as the competence of military forces abroad to perform criminal investigations.
3. Peace as a value legally protected through criminal law, especially through the definition of the crime of aggression on a national and international level and particularly in relation to the Statute of the International Criminal Court.
4. Review of the most serious violations of fundamental rights which have occurred during recent  conflicts, particularly in the so-called «war against terror», such as the cases of custody and in-custody treatment prohibited by the Geneva Conventions and the international treaties against torture.
5. In order to adequately safeguard peace and to combat the evils of war, it is necessary to provide the public with correct information. For this reason, attention was given to international tools for the protection under criminal law of journalists and means of mass communication in war-torn areas.
6. The list of threats to peace which involve a criminal law dimension is inexhaustible and includes various other issues, such as the violations of international rules on nuclear weapons or the protection of systems and strategic data bases from attacks.

With the subject chosen for its Congress, the valuable lectures presented and the general report and conclusions here included, the Society wishes to contribute to the development of International Criminal Law, to the prevention of international conflicts and to the creation of a global ethical and legal approach.

Final report and conclusions

Luis Arroyo Zapatero Edmondo Bruti Liberati
President General Secretary

B. Lectures and videos

Thursday, 20 September

 Opening ceremony
 Welcome address by:

         José María Barreda, President of Castilla La Mancha

         José Antonio Alonso, Minister of Defence of Spain

         Ernesto Martinez Ataz, President of the University of Castilla La Mancha

         Francisco  Pardo, President of the parliament of Castilla La Mancha

         Emiliano Garcia-Page, Mayor of Toledo

         Kuniko Ozaki, Director of Division for Treaty Affairs of UNODC.

         Simone Rozès , President d’honneur of the ISSD

         Luis Arroyo Zapatero, President of the ISSD.


       Introductory session.



        Javier Aparicio, Vice-president of the International Society for Military Law and the 

        Law of War  &  President of the Spanish group.

        Arne Willy Dahl, Judge Advocate General, Norwegian Armed Forces, President of 

        the International Society for Military Law and the Law of War

       Introducción a los trabajos del congreso. 

        Stefano Manacorda, Professor of Criminal Law, University of Napoles II.



       First session



         Eugenio Raul Zaffaroni, Judge of the Supreme Court of Argentina



       Organisation of military criminal justice and its evolution

         José Jimenez VillarejoFormer President of the Spanish Supreme Court on criminal and 

        military matters


       What should be the speciality of military criminal codes?

         Giovanni Fiandaca, Professor of Criminal Law, University of PalermoItaly 



        Sergio Garcia Ramírez, President of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (Costa Rica),                  Professor at the National Autonomous University of Mexico



       European Court of Human Rights and Military Criminal Justice

         Adán Nieto, Professor of Criminal Law, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain



       Inter-American Court of Human Rights and Military Criminal Justice

         Carlos Lascano, Professor of Criminal Law, University of Córdoba, Argentina



Friday, 21 September

      Second session

      criminal law framework of military missions abroad


        Mario Pisani, University of Milan, Italy



      Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA), Rules of Engagement (ROE) and Criminal Law

        Jean Paul Pierini, International Criminal Law Project, University of Genova, Italy.



      Judicial police functions of Armed Forces abroad 

       Geneviève Giudicelli-Delage, Professor of Comparative Procedural Law at


       University (Paris I), France.


      Criminal law protection and accountability of participants in peacekeeping 


        Kuniko Ozaki, Director of Division for Treaty Affairs of United Nations Office on Drugs and 

        Crime, Vienna.


       Operational Experiences in ROE and SOFA


        General FERNANDO PIGNATELLI, Legal counsel, Ministry of Defense Spain



       - General  Jose Antonio Fernández Tresguerres, Ministry of Defence, Spain


       - General Jose Elito Carvalho Siqueira, Chief Commander of the United Nations 


         Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), Brazil


       - Lieutenant-Colonel Sylvain Fournier, Legal Counsel for the International 

          Military Staff (IMS), NATO HQ, Brussels






         Agustín Corrales Elizondo, Judge of the Supreme Court in criminal matters, Spain.


      Third session



       Francisco Muñoz Conde, Professor of Criminal Law, Pablo Olavide University, Seville, Spain



      Military operations abroad and serious violations of fundamental rights

        Douglas Cassel, Professor of Law, Director of the University of Notre Dame Law 

        School’s Center  for Civil and Human Rights, USA 



      The crime of aggression between international and domestic criminal law

       Gerhard Werle, Humboldt University, Germany


      Journalism in times of war: the “Couso case”. Criminal law protection of 

      journalists  and media during armed conflicts 

       Gonzalo Jar, General of the Spanish ‘Guardia Civil’, Spain.





       Angel Juanes Peces, Judge of the Supreme Court in criminal matters, Spain.





       Edmondo Bruti Liberati, Judge, Italy; Secretary General of the International Society of 

       Social Defence


      The “Abu Omar” case

        Armando Spataro, Senior Prosecutor and Coordinator of the Anti-terrorist Group, Italy



      From “Abu Ghraib” to the “Rumsfeld” case

        Florian Jessberger, Professor of Criminal Law, Humboldt University, Germany 



      “Targeted killings” and extrajudicial executions

        General José Luis Rodríguez Villasante, Director of the Center for the Study of 


        Humanitarian Law, Spanish Red Cross



      Human rights in extradition and rendition matters.

       Giovanni Grasso, Professor of Criminal Law, University of Catania, Former member of the 

       Human  Rights Chamber of Bosnia-Herzegovina.



     Legal lessons from operation enduring freedom

      Colonel Michael F. Noone, Professor at the Catholic University of America, Columbus School 

      of  Law, United States.



      Italian judicial experiences on peacekeeping operations.

        Antonino Intelisano, National Military Prosecutor, Court of Rome, Italy



Saturday, 22 September

      Fourth  session

      Peace Protection and Criminal Law


        Joachim Vogel, Professor of Criminal Law, University of Tübingen, Germany 




      The new threats of the global risk society and their challenges to traditional 

      criminal law

        Ulrich Sieber, Director of the Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Criminal 

        Law, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany 



      War and corporate power

    •   William S. Laufer, Director of the Carol and Lawrence Zicklin Center for Business 

       Ethics, Wharton School, USA

    •   Ryan Burg, Researcher, Legal Studies and Business Ethics Department, Wharton School,




      Peacekeeping in a corrupt environment?

        Mark Pieth, Professor of Law, Basel Institute on Governance, Switzerland





         Concepción Escobar Hernández, Professor of International Law, UNED; Director of the 

         Legal  Department of the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation



      Closing session


        Sylvia Steiner, Judge at the International Criminal Court, The Hague, Netherlands 



       Criminal law as the ethics of globalisation

         Mireille Delmas-Marty, Professor at the College of France, Paris




       Giving of Beccaria Award for Young Researchers.

         Isabel Rodriguez, General Director of Youth Policies, Government of Castilla La Mancha





       2006 Cesare Beccaria Medal, presented to Judge Juan Guzmán Tapias.


      ·   Candido Conde Pumpido, Attorney General, Ministry of Justice, Spain

      ·   Montserrat Comas D’Argemir, Member of the General Council of the Judicial 

         Branch, Spain


      ·   Hernán Hormazábal Malarée, Professor of Criminal Law of the University of Gerona, Spain.

            Medal presented by:

       ·   Anabela Miranda Rodrigues, Director of the Judicial School of Portugal





C. Scientific Committee, Rapporteurs and Organization committee

Scientific Committee


Organization committee


In collaboration with:
Instituto de Derecho Penal Europeo e Internacional, Universidad de Castilla La Mancha
Centro Nazionale di Prevenzione e Difesa Sociale, Milano
Centre de Droit Pénal Comparé de l’UMR de Droit Comparé, Paris
Max-Planck-Institut für Ausländisches und Internationales Strafrecht, Freiburg
Centro de Estudios de Derecho Internacional Humanitario, Cruz Roja Española
Société Internationale de Droit militaire et de Droit de la Guerre, Brussels